CHAPTER XXV. CRANK-HAMMERS. 何一 The remarks, given in a former place, relating to tools for turning, apply to those for planing as well, except that in planing tools greater rigidity and strength are required. Steam and other machinery applied to the transport of material and travel, in navigation and by railways, comprises the greater share of what may be called engineering products; and when we consider that this vast interest of steam transport is less than a century old, and estimate its present and possible future influence on human affairs, we may realise the relation that mechanical science bears to modern civilisation.
In ages past, various attempts were made to find some constant in nature on which measures could be based. Some of these attempts were ludicrous, and all of them failures, until the vibrations of a pendulum connected length and space with time. The problem was then more easy. The changes of seasons and the movement of heavenly bodies had established measures of time, so that days, hours, and minutes became constants, proved and maintained by the unerring laws of nature. 言却 (1.) Name the different departments of an engineering establishment.—(2.) What does the engineering establishment include?—(3.) What does the commercial department include?—(4.) The foundry department?—(5.) The forging department?—(6.) The fitting department?—(7.) What does the term shop system mean as generally employed? The faces of the dies remain parallel, no matter how large the piece may be that is operated upon, while with a trip-hammer, the top die moves in an arc described from the trunnions of the helve, and the faces of the dies can only be parallel when in one position, or when operating on pieces of a certain depth. This feature of parallel movement with the dies of crank-hammers is of great importance on some kinds of work, and especially so for machine-forgings where the size or depth of the work is continually being varied.
In respect to lathe manipulation, which is perhaps the most difficult to learn of all shop operations, the following hints are given, which may prove of service to a learner: At the beginning the form of tools should be carefully studied; this is one of the great points in lathe work; the greatest distinction between a thorough and indifferent latheman is that one knows the proper form and temper of tools and the other does not. The adjustment and presenting of tools is soon learned by experience, but the proper form of tools is a matter of greater difficulty. One of the first things to study is the shape of cutting edges, both as to clearance below the edge of the tool, and the angle of the edge, with reference to both turning and boring, because the latter is different from turning. The angle of lathe tools is clearly suggested by diagrams, and there is no better first lesson in drawing than to construct diagrams of cutting angles for plane and cylindrical surfaces. 是不 For milling, drilling or boring ordinary work within its range, a lathe is by no means a makeshift tool, but performs these various operations with nearly all the advantages of machines adapted to each purpose. An ingenious workman who understands the adaptation of a modern engine lathe can make almost any kind of light machinery without other tools, except for planing, and may even perform planing when the surfaces are not too large; in this way machinery can be made at an expense not much greater than if a full equipment of different tools is employed. This of course can only be when no division of labour is required, and when one man is to perform all the several processes of turning, drilling, and so on.
It is now proposed to review the standard tools of a fitting shop, noticing the general principles of their construction and especially of their operation; not by drawings nor descriptions to show what a lathe or a planing machine is, nor how some particular engineer has constructed such tools, but upon the plan explained in the introduction, presuming the reader to be familiar with the names and purposes of standard machine tools. If he has not learned this much, and does not understand the names and general objects of the several operations carried on in a fitting shop, he should proceed to acquaint himself thus far before troubling himself with books of any kind. 是一 In treating of machinery for transport, as a class, the subject, as far as noticed here, will be confined to moving and handling material as one of the processes of manufacturing, and especially in connection with machine construction. If the amount of time, expense, labour, and machinery devoted to handling material in machine shops is estimated, it becomes a matter of astonishment to as many as have not previously investigated the subject; as an item of expense the handling, often exceeds the fitting on large pieces, and in the heavier class of work demands the most careful attention to secure economical manipulation. The lathe as a tool for producing heliacal forms would occupy a prominent place among machine tools, if it were capable of performing no other work; the number of parts of machinery which have screw-threads is astonishing; clamping-bolts to hold parts together include a large share of the fitting on machinery of all kinds, while screws are the most common means for increasing power, changing movements and performing adjustments. It may be noticed that the carriages of some lathes move on what are termed V tracks which project above the top of lathe frames, and that in other lathes the carriages slide on top of the frames with a flat bearing. As these two plans of mounting lathe carriages have led to considerable discussion on the part of engineers, and as its consideration may suggest a plan of analysing other problems of a similar nature, I will notice some of the conditions existing in the two cases, calling the different arrangements by the names of flat shears and track shears.”
As molecular adhesion keeps the particles of matter together so as to form solids, so the force of gravity keeps objects in their place; and to attain a proper conception of forces, especially in handling and moving material, it is necessary to familiarise the mind with this thought. 掉哪 In ages past, various attempts were made to find some constant in nature on which measures could be based. Some of these attempts were ludicrous, and all of them failures, until the vibrations of a pendulum connected length and space with time. The problem was then more easy. The changes of seasons and the movement of heavenly bodies had established measures of time, so that days, hours, and minutes became constants, proved and maintained by the unerring laws of nature. Physical strength, bone and muscle, must be elements in successful engineering experience; and if these things are not acquired at the same time with a mechanical education, it will be found, when ready to enter upon a course of practice, that an important element, the "propelling power," has been omitted.”